Summary of Nutrients Special Issue “The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men”

The article “The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men” by Yau, et al., was published in Nutrients in 2017. This single-blind, pilot study examined the effect of simple sugar ingestion in more commonly ingested amounts on appetite, circulating gut hormone responses, and markers of hepatic metabolism to evaluate the previously proposed mechanism of action that fructose may influence incretin and gut-derived hormones to alter subjective feelings of hunger. Seven healthy men (mean ± standard deviation, age 25 ± 4 year, body mass index 25.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2) participated in five experimental trials with at least six days between trials. Participants were asked to replicate dietary and physical activity patterns in the 24 h before each experimental trial. The following day, participants consumed 595 mL of test solutions that contained water only (W), 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), or 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C) in a randomized order. Subjective feelings of appetite using a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) were taken at baseline and 10 min intervals throughout a 60 minute trial and blood samples were collected at baseline and 10, 20, 30, and 60 min beverage after ingestion. Serum fructose, glucose, lactate, triglyceride, NEFA, and D-3 hydroxybutyrate concentrations and the circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are reported. As expected, glucose and fructose ingestion resulted in respective increases in blood glucose and blood fructose concentration with peak concentrations being attained at 30 min by the glucose alone and fructose alone trials. Researchers report that ingestion of glucose alone did not change blood fructose while fructose ingestion increased blood glucose at 30 min which may be due to fructose undergoing conversion to glucose. Additionally, fructose ingestion resulted in a lower blood glucose concentration at 20 min but no significantly lower overall (iAUC) blood glucose response compared with glucose consumption. Intake of fructose containing solutions increased blood lactate concentration at a faster rate than the ingestion of glucose alone. The ingestion of all four sugar solutions resulted in similar acylated ghrelin suppression and total GLP-1 while the effect of fructose on GIP response was comparable to water, not other sugar solutions. Additionally, although glucose and sucrose, but not fructose, ingestion affected insulin concentrations over time, there were no differences between sugars at different time-points or for the overall (iAUC) response. Triglyceride concentrations were unchanged following ingestion of the sugar solutions which may imply that acute ingestion of simple sugars in typical amounts does not result in immediate increases in the rate of de novo lipogenesis. The authors conclude “The acute ingestion of simple sugars in typical amounts induced marked differences in the circulating GIP response, and blood glucose and fructose responses, but not acylated ghrelin, total GLP-1, or insulin responses. No effects on appetite scores were seen as a result. The acute ingestion of a solution containing typical amounts of sugar does not result in significantly increased triglyceride synthesis over the postprandial period investigated. Furthermore, no differences between sugars in these smaller quantities were seen for lipolysis and NEFA metabolism suppression but fructose ingestion results in significantly increased lactate production that is augmented with glucose co-ingestion.”