Meta-Analysis of Sugar and Type 2 diabetes Published

Tsilas et al., present research findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis in the article “Relation of total sugars, fructose and sucrose with incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies” published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. The authors evaluated data from 9 publications reporting results of 15 cohort […]

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Summary of “Fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers postprandial glucose and insulin without raising triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis”

For your information, an article entitled “Fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers postprandial glucose and insulin without raising triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis” by Evans et al. was recently published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. In the present study, Evans et al. conducted a systematic review and […]

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Study Summary of “Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity”

For your information, a study entitled “Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity” was recently published in the Journal of Internal Medicine. The purpose of this study by Taskinen et al. was to determine the effects of fructose on liver fat development, body composition, dietary […]

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Summary of Study “Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid consumption in rat offspring”

For your information a study entitled “Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid consumption in rat offspring” was recently published in The Journal of Physiology. The study has garnered some attention resulting in a commentary in The Journal of Physiology entitled “Maternal fructose consumption can […]

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Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control for incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

A study entitled “Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control for incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men” by Matikainen et al. was recently published in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine if habitual fructose consumption (75g/d for 12 […]

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Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

On April 18, Caliceti et al. published a review entitled “Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review” in Nutrients. The review focuses on the role of uric acid (UA) in cardio metabolic disorders and the relationship between fructose consumption, blood UA, and health outcomes. The authors first review purine metabolism including […]

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Observational Findings Linking Intake of Sugar Containing Beverage Do Not Accurately Represent Americans’ Risk For Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease

While a recent study alleges estimated intake of sugar containing beverages is associated with markers of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, the observational nature of the study and other important limitations temper any significance of the findings. In the study, “Sugary beverage intake and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in the community”, Pase et al., analyzed data from a […]

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Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with Beta-cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity and T2DM Study Summary

For your information, a study entitled “Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β–cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study” by den Biggelaar et al. was recently published in Nutrients. The purpose of the study was to determine associations between glucose, fructose, and sucrose intakes with β–cell Function (BCF), […]

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Top view of sugar in a wooden spoon on rustic table

Another Perspective on Added Sugars

Consuming Modest Amounts May Improve Overall Dietary Quality As a Registered Dietitian, I approach designing an individualized eating plan or group menu with an eye on science-based nutrition as well as an eye towards acceptance.  After all, if people don’t like their food and it ends up in the trash, it doesn’t matter how fabulously […]

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a sugar free word with background - still life

Making Sense Out of Sugars

Sugar- Free? Are You Sure about That? Cruising the internet the other day, I ran across a recipe for “Sugar-Free Apple Pie Filling.” I was instantly suspicious.  The recipe’s ingredients listed no white sugar, but did include a can of 100% pure unsweetened apple juice concentrate.  Apple juice is naturally loaded with sugar.  So, the […]

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Summary of Nutrients Special Issue “Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifaceted Aspects of their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health”

Nutrients recently published a special issue entitled “Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifaceted Aspects of their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health” which included fifteen papers relating to these monosaccharides. Staff has identified articles of interest to the Working Group and has provided a summary of each, including points of consideration as necessary. The article […]

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Summary of Nutrients Special Issue “The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men”

The article “The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men” by Yau, et al., was published in Nutrients in 2017. This single-blind, pilot study examined the effect of simple sugar ingestion in more commonly ingested amounts on appetite, circulating gut hormone responses, and markers of hepatic […]

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Study Review – “Fructose in Breast Milk is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age”

A recent study published in Nutrients asserts that fructose in breast milk is significantly associated with infant body composition.  Twenty-five mother-infant dyads participated in the study in which infants were exclusively breastfeed from 1 month (first time point) until 6 months (second time point). At both the 1 month an 6 month time points, expressed […]

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“The human brain produces fructose from glucose” Summary and Points of Consideration

A recent study entitled “The human brain produces fructose from glucose” published in JCI Insight sought to examine whether peripheral hyperglycemia can drive intracerebral production of fructose through the polyol pathway [glucose –(aldose reductase)à sorbitol –(sorbitol dehydrogenase)à fructose] in an exploratory study. Researchers at Yale selected 4 male and 4 female participants (mean: age 28.8, […]

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Study Linking Fructose Intake to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

A study entitled “Serum uric acid concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH in children and adolescents,” was recently published in the Journal of Hepatology. The purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children and adolescents with confirmed cases of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). More […]

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with excessive calorie intake rather than a distinctive dietary pattern

A study published in Medicine sought to characterize the dietary patterns of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to assess the efficacy of dietary interventions on NAFLD related outcomes. Researchers collected a total of 55 NAFLD patients and 88 controls to complete the study in northern Germany. All participants were subjected to a […]

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Postexercise Repletion of Muscle Energy Stores with Fructose or Glucose in Mixed Meals

A recent study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition asserts that consumption of fructose “lowers whole-body glycogen synthesis and impairs subsequent exercise performance, presumably because of lower hepatic glycogen stores.” The study sought to compare “isocaloric mixed meals containing fat and protein with either pure fructose or pure glucose” on intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), […]

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Close up shot of a pecan pie cooling on a chopping block

Every Day Use of Crystalline Fructose

Fructose occurs naturally in various types of foods but it’s commonly referred to as the “fruit sugar” because it’s found in a lot of fruits and vegetables. You can also find fructose in crystalline form, which is derived primarily from cornstarch but looks like table sugar and is 1.2 times sweeter. When used in recipes, […]

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Fructose is Not the Enemy

Do you cringe when you hear the word fructose? Fructose has received a bad reputation recently due to media and its association with the term “high fructose corn syrup”. Fructose is blamed for obesity, diabetes and other health concerns, but does fructose really cause these problems? While it is easy to blame one food ingredient […]

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Sugar Sweetened Beverages but Not Diet Soda Consumption is Positively Associated with Insulin Resistance

A longitudinal study examining the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet sodas on insulin resistance and incidence of prediabetes was published in November issue of The Journal of Nutrition. Researchers used a subsample of participants from the Framingham Heart Study’s Offspring cohort (n=1685). Data from 126-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) collected from […]

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Uric Acid and Transforming Growth Factor in Fructose-induced Production of ROS in Skeletal Muscle

An article was recently published in Nutrition Reviews which aimed to summarize the current literature on the effects of fructose on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in various tissues, particularly skeletal muscle, and identify research gaps for which future endeavors should address. First, reviewers provided an overview of the metabolic effects of […]

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Sugar Consumption, Metabolic Disease and Obesity: The State of the Controversy

A review article published in Clinical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences discusses the current scientific evidence which fosters an environment of controversy about the health effects of sugar consumption.  The reviewers evaluated research which examined both direct and indirect effects of added sugars on the development of metabolic disease which, for the case of this […]

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Diets High in Fat or Fructose Differentially Modulate Bone Health and Lipid Metabolism

A new study was recently published in Calcified Tissue International which compared the effects of high-fat and high-fructose diets on various outcomes including visceral and subcutaneous fat deposition, de novo lipogenesis, plasma glucose, plasma leptin, plasma insulin, and bone architecture and stiffness. The experiment conducted by Jatkar et al. utilized 30 male mice divided into […]

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Early Life Fructose Exposure and Its Implications for Long-Term Cardiometabolic Health in Offspring

A review was recently published in Nutrients which examined the relationship between early life exposure to fructose and cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. Reviewers cited a number studies which associated fructose intake with various health outcomes such as insulin resistance, elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and […]

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Tablet with chemical formula of  Fructose.

The Facts on Fructose

As healthcare professionals, we’ve heard our patients’ concerns regarding sugars.  In particular, one type of sugar is often demonized – fructose – especially when it’s partnered with the words, high fructose corn syrup.  Fructose has been blamed for obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and high triglycerides, but it’s important to know the facts about fructose before […]

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Rippe Review on Added Sugars and Disease Risk Factors

On November 4, a review by James M. Rippe and Theodore J. Angelopoulos was published in Nutrients. The review entitled, “Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding,” examines the latest, high quality science to address the ambiguity of the relationship between sugar consumption and various health related conditions. Rippe and […]

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Review of Fructose on Insulin Sensitivity in Non-Diabetic Subjects

A new systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effects of fructose on insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Researchers specifically looked at controlled clinical trials with normal weight, overweight, and obese non-diabetic participants. All studies used in the analysis were assessed and provided a Heyland methodological quality […]

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Making Sense of Sugar

The three main types of carbohydrate in food are starches (also known as complex carbohydrates), sugars, and fiber. As one of the three types of carbohydrates, sugars are in many of the foods and beverages we consume every day. But over the past decade sugars have become a hot-button issue. It seems like every time […]

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Fructose Intake and Risk of Gout and Hyperuricemia, Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

A recent systematic review and meta-analysis from The BMJ attempts to define a relationship between fructose intake and the development of gout and hyperuricemia. Researchers were only able to identify two prospective cohort studies which met their selection criteria; both of which pertained to fructose intake and gout but did not address incidence of hyperuricemia. […]

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Diabetes Regulates Fructose Absorption through Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein

On October 11, a study published in eLife revealed the effects of thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) on fructose absorption and metabolic disease progression in mice models. It has been established Txnip overexpression impairs glucose uptake in peripheral tissues whereas Txnip ablation results in increased glucose uptake.  Txnip is thought to regulate glucose uptake through increased expression […]

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Post-Exercise Appetite was Affected by Fructose Content but Not Glycemic Index of Pre-Exercise Meals

A study published in Appetite investigated the effect of glycemic index (GI) and fructose content in pre-exercise meals on appetite following moderate-intensity exercise. The study enrolled ten, healthy men with an average age of 21.7 years and average BMI of 20.9kg/m2. The three, isocaloric pre-exercise meals were classified as low GI breakfast without fructose (LGI), […]

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ChREBP Regulates Fructose-induced Glucose Production Independently of Insulin Signaling

In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (see attached), researchers suggest that ChREBP, a transcriptional activator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, modulates selective liver insulin sensitivity.   Researchers believe that in insulin resistant states, where glucose is not readily taken up by peripheral tissues, glucose shunting to the liver activates ChREBP and promotes […]

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Different Kinds of Sugar in the Spoons

Sorting Out the Science on Sugars

Sugar has received a large share of media coverage over the past decade. Accused of being toxic, addictive and the cause of obesity, it makes our job as health professionals even more challenging when trying to separate fallacies from facts. Of course, we know that sugar, and more specifically glucose, is the body’s primary energy […]

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Stock image of stack of pancakes with butter and syrup over white background

Time to Batter Up!

Flapjacks, griddle cakes, hot cakes, or pancakes.  Whatever you call them, they’re the ultimate fun food, conjuring up sweet memories of family togetherness on lazy weekend mornings. Pancakes tend to be pretty darn good even when they’re just average, but here are simple steps to make your cakes more fluffy, tender, flavorful — and nutritious: […]

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Elementary school kids climbing on to a school bus

Getting into the Back to School Groove

School is back in session and this means there’s more on your to-do list, right? The beginning of the school year lends itself to more structured meal schedules, so take advantage of the new routine and enjoy healthy meals and snacks. While you work to keep the children on track, don’t forget about yourself. Who […]

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Fructose in a solid meal does not affect blood markers of lipid and sugar metabolism.

“Fructose acute effects on glucose, insulin, and triglyceride after a solid meal compared with sucralose and sucrose in a randomized crossover study” was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in June, 2016. When compared with iso-caloric intake of other sugars, fructose does not appear to perturb blood triglycerides or body weight. However, the […]

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Yellow tape measure wrapped around a weighing scales machine

Carb Diet Trends

In 1984, Time magazine famously featured a sad face made of fried eggs and bacon on its cover. According to experts quoted in the article, fat was the macronutrient villain, squarely blocking the gate to lower BMIs and better cardiovascular health.  Thirty years later, Time again tackled the subject of dietary fat, this time showing […]

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The popular sports drink known as vitamin water.

Sports Drinks: Fuel for Athletes

No matter what sort of nutrition advice you offer your patients, it’s important to first inquire about their diet and lifestyle. A healthy diet is balanced with physical activity, and includes the basics of choosing lots of vegetables, fruit, quality protein, whole grains, and healthy fats, while limiting sodium, sugar and alcohol. However when using […]

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The words FAT CALORIES CARBS written in vintage letterpress type

Carbohydrates: Macronutrient

For years, carbohydrates have taken blame for obesity. Americans nutritional perceptions have been influenced by low-carbohydrate fad diets for decades dating back to the “meat diet” beginning in the 1940s. Other more modern reduced carbohydrate diets include Atkin’s, stoneage and Paleolithic, “Zone” and “South Beach.”  The popularity of these diets encourages Americans to fear carbohydrates. […]

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Liver Glycogen Metabolism During and After Prolonged Endurance-Type Exercise

A 2016 literature review published in the American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism describes the involvement of liver glycogen in prolonged exercise and discusses the most effective nutritional strategies for liver glycogen repletion. Gonzalez et al. report that the total volume of liver glycogen in trained endurance athletes is no different than that of […]

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Summer Picnic Scene On The Grass Background

Summer Picnics

I don’t know about you, but I love being outdoors in the summertime. I especially love al fresco dining. Whether you are planning a backyard barbecue, a deck party, or packing a picnic to go, I encourage you to plan a festive spread that encompasses the basic food groups as well as a dessert or […]

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Food sources of complex carbohydrates, isolated on white.

The Role of Carbs in the Diet

The International Food Information Council (IFIC) foundation recently published findings from an online food and health survey conducted between 2012 and 2015. While there continues to be a disconnect between weight status and perceived health by many Americans, the participants report behaviors consistent with widely disseminated nutrition advice including trying to limit or avoid added […]

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Carbohydrates: Diet Essentials

Carbohydrates, like fats and proteins, are considered macronutrients. These “large scale” nutrients provide nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.  Ideally, 45 to 65 percent of your daily intake should come from carbohydrates, 20 to 35 percent of your daily intake should come from fats, and 10 to 35 percent of your daily […]

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No Differential Effect of Beverages Sweetened with Fructose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, or Glucose on Systemic or Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Normal-Weight to Obese Adults

A new study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, reports that consumption of beverages sweetened with glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HCFS) do not promote inflammation or gut permeability. Researchers have hypothesized that systemic inflammation increases risk for development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. Similarly, […]

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fruit isolated on a white background

Respect the Fruit: Three Important Reasons to Plan More Fruit in Your Diet

As a registered dietitian and nutrition educator, I find that fruit often doesn’t get the nutritional respect it deserves.  Maybe that’s because fruit is called “Nature’s Candy” or because it’s found in many calorie-laden desserts like Strawberry Shortcake, Apple Pie, or Banana Pudding. But, fattening desserts are only part of fruit’s resume.  Consuming fruit has […]

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Heap of sugar and pouring more from a spoon

Spring Into Action with Food Facts

Spring has finally arrived (when you live in the Northeast, I can’t emphasize the word “finally” enough). This is a great time of the year to add more physical activities to your week and look for lighter meals and healthy snacks. I’m always reminded that people get mixed messages when it comes to healthy foods […]

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Fructose May Help Maintain Liver Glycogen during Prolonged Endurance-type Exercise

Previously published research has shown that carbohydrate feeding during prolonged (>2 hour) moderate-to-high intensity, endurance-type exercise enhances endurance performance and capacity. The improvement in exercise performance has previously been attributed to high rates of carbohydrate oxidation which prevent hypoglycemia and may spare muscle glycogen. However, it is well known that glycogen stores in the liver […]

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The role of carbohydrates, including fructose, on athletic performance reaffirmed by several health organizations

While most adults need to watch their caloric intake, athletes need to be conscious of the amount, type and timing of calories to help ensure optimal performance. The recent position by several professional organizations, including the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, continues to support the […]

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Handsome fit man exercising a the gym

Exercising Without Overeating

The time for New Year’s resolutions is drawing near and you may be considering starting a workout routine. Good choice. Regular exercise has a host of benefits including better cardiovascular health, lowered blood glucose levels, mood elevation, and improved muscle strength and endurance. Some say that exercise also helps curb your appetite.  Really?  Not in […]

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Results of Sugar Reduction Research Clouded by Non-Compliance of Study Participants

Study fails to isolate whether weight loss or calorie source was cause of health impact In the recent study “Isocaloric Fructose Restriction and Metabolic Improvement in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome,” the authors allege that sugar, more specifically fructose, causes health-related problems that are independent of the health concerns related to intake of calories. […]

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An apple and a paper bag with lunch. Vintage Style.

Back to School with a Healthy Lunch!

Does your morning groove feel like a grind? Even though you are somewhat adjusted to the new school year’s morning schedule, you may already be dreading the lunchbox-packing. Here are some lunch box tips to keep your family healthy this school year: Count 4 food groups when you plan and pack. Include a protein, a […]

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Happy young friends eating watermelon on beach

7 Tips for Balanced Summertime Picnics & BBQs

Here in the northeast it’s been raining…a lot. We’re hoping for more outdoor picnic weather soon, but in the meantime I can make sure the picnics you’re planning are a success with these important tips. When planning picnics, you want to serve food that’s delicious, healthy and safe for everyone. Consider these picnic planning tips the next time you […]

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Sports and workout equipment on a wooden floor with healthy snacks, weight loss and physical activity concept

The Low Down on the DASH Diet

You may be hearing a lot of buzz about the DASH Diet. Voted #1 by U.S. News and World Report for the sixth in a row. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and is based on a clinical trial (research study) of the same name. This diet focuses on fruits and vegetables, whole […]

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Healthy Eating.

Spring into Lighter Eating

If you live in the Northeast you may not be feeling “spring” yet, but it’s here. As the days get longer and warmer, there will be more opportunity to be more physically active, so it’s a great time of year to give your diet a tune-up and spring into lighter eating. Since there seems to […]

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Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity

Calorie Control Council Comments Payne AN, Chassard C, Lacroix C. Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity. Obes Rev. 2012 Sep. A recent review by Payne et al. (1) proposes the hypothesis that sugar compounds—particularly free fructose—contribute to obesity by conditioning gut […]

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Therapeutic Interventions for Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Disease are Premature

In their recent article, Vos and McClain paint a grim picture of dietary fructose, likening its effect to alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury and thereby ‘‘defining targets for therapeutic interventions.’’ The case for such interventions is unsupported, built as it is on inappropriate extrapolation of highly exaggerated diets to the human condition, and decidedly premature for two reasons.

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Increased fructose intake as a risk factor for dementia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010

In a recent paper, Stephan et al. speculated that high fructose intake is a risk factor for dementia and that increasing consumption of fructose in the U.S. population could lead to greater dementia risk. Their premise is weakened, however, by outdated references to fructose intake and functional properties, and by a reliance on supporting evidence gathered under extreme experimental conditions unrelated to typical human fructose exposure.

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Methodological problems invalidate sugars differences

In a recent paper, Le et al. reported finding differences between the two most commonly used sweeteners in the US, concluding that “compared with sucrose, HFCS [high fructose corn syrup] leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects.” Evidence in support of this conclusion was unconvincing, however, due to significant deficiencies in the experimental design.

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